A Blessing & A Curse – Capernaum

Series: Israel 2022 – Continuing our adventures in Israel in Feb/Mar 2022

Jesus chose a sleepy fishing village on the Sea of Galilee as the central location for his ministry. Not much there really…. then or now.  The town itself was established by the Hasmoneans in the 2nd century before Christ was born (BC or Before the Common Era, BCE, if you prefer) and lasted until sometime in the 11th century after His death (AD or CE) when it was abandoned after a second major earthquake.1 (The first major earthquake was on January 18, 749 AD and destroyed much of the surrounding cities and towns. That very precise date comes from Wikipedia. The second major earthquake which resulted in Capernaum being abandoned was about 1049 AD – they weren’t so sure on the date here.4)

Well, I suppose in terms of the history of this country (USA), more than 1300 years would be quite something for a town, but in terms of Israel and the ancient near east, it wasn’t such a long span of time at all.  Even though it lasted many years, I think (IMHO – In My Humble Opinion) Capernaum’s heyday and time of great fame had to have been those few short years when Jesus was teaching there, healing the sick, and casting out demons in the name of God, the Father.  It was only about three years but, make no mistake, He did quite a bit of healing in that short time with crowds following Him day and maybe even night all over the place…sometimes just to get a glimpse of Him or sometimes just to touch the hem of his robes.

Ancient olive press – a reminder of the passage at Luke 17:2 – “It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he cast into the sea, than that he should offend one of these little ones.”

At one point, Jesus fed 5000 men (not counting the women and children) and at another 4000. (Matthew 14:17-21 and Matthew 15:4-39) Whether you believe (like I do) that He did this with just a few fish and loaves of bread is one thing…. the fact that so many could be fed at all is pretty miraculous. Ask any caterer how much preparation goes into feeding a couple hundred tired hungry people, let alone 5000 plus, on short notice!  Twelve apostles passed out food and gathered the leftovers in baskets…. consider how many wait-staff a caterer would need to serve 4-5000 people!

View of the Franciscan Monastery from the ruins.

But, notwithstanding any of that, Capernaum, “the village of comfort”, was estimated to have had about 1500 people living there at the time of Christ. It is amazing to think of the population being increased by 5000+ people for even a short period of time. That’s quite a boost in population that would strain on the local economy for any small town. But it is recorded in the scriptures that they came and kept coming. They came to see this new teacher, to hear His words, and to be healed…. both physically and spiritually….and many became His disciples.  

We also came to this place…. to see the ruins of this village that is mentioned so prominently in the four Gospels of the New Testament.  Not only did Jesus adopt this town as His own (Matthew 9:1), but it was also the place where He called Peter, Andrew, James, John, (Matthew 4:18-20) and, later, Matthew to come and follow Him. He promised the four fishermen that He would make them “fishers of men” (Matthew 4:19 and Mark 1:17) and He did.  Five of the twelve apostles coming from one small village is also quite amazing to me.

The large wall in the background was built by the Franciscans in the 1800’s to protect the site from treasure hunters seeking gold and from developers looking for building materials.

Capernaum wasn’t what I had expected.  I’m not really sure what I expected at this point. Israel so far had been so much more than I had thought it would be. And I was finding that, the more I saw, and the more I learned about this land and its relationship with God, the more I wanted to know. This feeling has stuck with me, and I find myself doing more and more research as I go through my photos and work on these blogs.  As my mama would say, Israel has sorta gotten stuck in my craw and I gotta keep working at it until I get it all figured out.

The ruins of Capernaum (Kfar Nahum to the Romans) were excavated as part of Tel Ham (Arabic Talhum)1. From the 11th century until the 19th century, it had been lost.  There was tradition and stories about where it was but no archaeological evidence.

Briefly, in a nutshell:

1838    Synagogue Ruins found by Edward Robinson

1866    Site was finally identified as being Capernaum by Charles William Wilson

1894    Site was purchased by a Franciscan Friar, Giuseppe Baldi, Naples

1905    Study of the synagogue & an ancient octagonal church nearby begun by Heinrich Kohl & Carl Watzinger

1968    The apostle Peter’s house was discovered by Virgilio Corbo and Stanislao Loffreda1

Peter’s house – that’s what I really wanted to see. I had no idea there was a synagogue there that was important. Maybe I could have assumed that there would be a synagogue in a Jewish town, but it had not really crossed my mind to think about it. (Of course, now, having been to Israel, I would certainly realize that every town of any size would have a synagogue.)

As you enter the compound, you first pass a Franciscan monastery on site and then move into the ancient ruins. The first thing you see is the modern church/training center that looks like a gigantic flying saucer come to roost on top of the ruins. It was built in 1990 1. Not that I want to offend anyone, I really have to ask “why?”  Why build right on top of the ruins? I didn’t particularly like contrast of the ultra-modern building hovering over the ancient ruins and I really didn’t like that it covered the very thing I wanted to see! I understand that there is a glass floor and that you can sit and contemplate the ruins underneath looking through the floor (if the building is open to visitors). That really doesn’t change my opinion.

The Franciscan Church/Training Center located just over the ruins of “Peter’s House” in Capernaum. Doesn’t it look a bit like a spaceship?

The ruin that has been identified as Peter’s house from the 1st century is there – under the building. Here’s what tradition and some of the archaeology cites say about the site.  Peter lived there at the time of Jesus who may or may not have stayed with Peter when He [Jesus] was in Capernaum. We know from scripture that Jesus healed Peter’s mother-in-law at home (Matthew 8:14), and it has been assumed that she was at Peter’s house at the time. Sometime, in the latter part of the 1st century AD, the house became what is referred to as a “domus ecclesia”, i.e., house-church 1. It was no longer used for living quarters but was used for worship 2. It was known traditionally as Peter’s home where Jesus stayed, and early Christians went there to worship. In the 4th century, an octagonal basilica was built over the main room of the “house” and, later, in the 5th century, that smaller basilica was dismantled and replaced by a larger octagonal basilica 1&2. It is believed that the two octagonal churches were built over Peter’s house to preserve and memorialize the site. The octagonal church was known to medieval travelers & pilgrims who visited the area 2.

Inscription on a statue of Peter by the Franciscan monastery.

When Peter lived in the house (if he did – I’m still a bit skeptical), it was made of rough basalt stone which is plentiful in the area with a roof made of wooden poles covered with thatch. It is referred to by the Franciscans as “sacra insula” or “holy insula” described as a block of rooms around a central courtyard. 1 When the “house” became a “church”, it was upgraded to have plaster on the walls of the larger main room and a more permanent roof and floor was added. The plastered walls in the main room were decorated with mosaics.  And there is graffiti – some crosses – a even a prayer or two, “Lord Jesus Christ help thy servant” and “Christ have mercy2.

But, of course, I couldn’t see any of that.  The archaeologists who excavated the site reported it, but I couldn’t see anything that even looked like a house or a church or anything…. just what looked like roughly made rock walls up under that big memorial disk. The trouble with ruins is that you only have bits and pieces, so you really have to use your imagination.

As close as I could get to the ruins identified as Peter’s House (the roundish ruins in the center). Note the octagonal walls of the two basilicas built over it.

In my photos, I can see that the walls form an octagon, and I can see a smaller octagon inside and a circular wall (room?) inside that although I could not see all the sides of the octagon from where I stood.  There is a better photo in Wikipedia that shows the site without obstruction which must have been taken prior to the construction of the memorial disk-shaped building on top. 6

So, is that Peter’s house? I don’t know. There does seem to be quite a bit of circumstantial evidence that the house that was covered/marked by those two octagonal basilicas was an important place for the early Christians. And Peter did live somewhere in Capernaum, so I suppose the possibility is good that Peter lived in that house and Jesus visited Peter’s house while at Capernaum.

Now, about The synagogue. The ruins are beautiful, and you can clearly see that it was an important building in town and a place of worship for the Jewish people. While the rest of the town was seemingly built of the black basalt, the synagogue was built of limestone brought in from a quarry possibly at Taybeh1. Odd, maybe, but not unusual for a prominent and special building in a village or town.

Inside the synagogue ruins.

The synagogue was built on a platform that raised it up higher than the rest of the town as was the Jewish tradition. One would have to enter using several steps on the southwest & southeast corners of the building. The synagogue included a prayer hall with a nave and two columned aisles. There are two rows of stone benches that would have been for the elders. There was also a school room to the eastern side.2

The steps to the synagogue on the southwest corner. The steps are thought to be the oldest part of the synagogue.

Was this the synagogue that Luke 7.5 tells us was built by the centurion who admired the Jews living there in Capernaum…the same centurion who asked Jesus to heal his servant? Turns out, it is not. This synagogue was built in the 4th century AD so was definitely not a place where Jesus would have taught. But, then again, turns out, this synagogue was built on top of another more ancient synagogue (as is the habit to build the new over the old) that was made of black basalt and has been dated back to the 1st century. That original ancient synagogue of black basalt is more likely to be the one that Jesus knew2.

The synagogue viewed from the side/just to the north of Peter’s house. Note the homes are made of basalt stone that is dry-stacked or without mortar which was typical of the 1st century AD. Also, note the contrast with the walls of the synagogue which is made of limestone and from about the 4th century AD.

The excavation continues at Capernaum and, no doubt, more things will be learned as the site is explored. Part of the site is owned by the Eastern Orthodox Church just over the wall built to enclose the Franciscan part. The part of the city owned by the Eastern Orthodox Church has not been excavated. Who knows what may be found there if it is ever excavated? Maybe more proof will be discovered that the house under/within the octagonal walls really was the house of Peter. Maybe more will be discovered in the synagogue that points back to Jesus. We know from scripture that Jesus was there along with Peter, James, John, and Matthew…and the rest of his disciples. And we know that many people followed Him there looking for the promised Messiah.

However, notwithstanding all the miracles and the amazing sermons, the overall populace (priests? Pharisees? officials?) of Capernaum did not believe. In the end, Jesus cursed Capernaum for its unbelief. Matthew 11:23 states that Jesus said that Capernaum would be thrown down to Hades. A village that was blessed by the presence of God in the beginning only to be cursed by Him in the end.

Sculpture in the Garden at Capernaum. It was referred to as the “Homeless Jesus”.

Scriptural Sources – As shown throughout the text.

Sources for Historical Information:

  1. Capernaum – Wikipedia
  2. Top Ten Biblical Archaeological Discoveries, © 2011 Biblical Archaeology Society 4710 41st Street, NW Washington, DC 20016 www.biblicalarchaeology.or ,  pages 68-84. (This is a free e-book available at the link shown above.)
  3. Hasmonean dynasty – Wikipedia
  4. 749 Galilee earthquake – Wikipedia
  5. New Testament places associated with Jesus – Wikipedia
  6. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=743768 (Credit for photo from Google)
  7. www.bakerbooks.com , USA, Capernaum, pages 185-189
  8. Saint Peter – Wikipedia

Israel 2022: Caesarea Maritima

In this country (USA) and in most of North America, we tend to think in terms of hundreds of years when we see “old” sections of modern cities and wonder just how old they are. In visiting some cities along the east coast, I have found myself in awe of old colonial buildings that are three to four hundred years old. Oh, I say, “If these walls could talk”, imagining the people who lived there in the 17th or, maybe 18th centuries…. not to mention that George Washington might have even slept there at some point or another.

But in the “Old World” – in Europe and Asia, my imaginings have had to be adjusted….old cities are not just hundreds of years old, but hundreds of hundreds of years. Some archaeological remains date back to well beyond the Common Era (CE), or, as I still call it, Anno Domini (AD), and maybe for a few thousand years Before the Common Era (BCE) or Before Christ (BC)3. Particularly, cities in the middle east are dated in terms of thousands of years…by definition, “ancient” and not just “old”.  Archaeologists never really know how many cities there are in a given location when they start to dig down because cities were built one on top of the other. When one city fell to conquest or was abandoned, in many cases, another city was built at the same site using the old building remains as new building materials. If there was a value in being at that location (money, security, power, etc.), then another city was built right on top on the last city. Out with the old, in with the new. Still happens today – tear something down, build something new right on the same “footprint”.

Thus, it was for Caesarea Maritima on the Mediterranean, the first stop on our tour of Israel earlier this year. Originally, there was a Phoenician port city called Strato’s Tower (Stratonos pyrgos) assumed to be named after the King of Sidon, Stratos I. I’ve seen Sidon mentioned several times in the Christian Bible and it is usually coupled with Tyre, as in Tyre & Sidon. Sidon today is known locally as Sayda or Saida and is the third largest city in Lebanon just up the coast. When I was in elementary school, I remember hearing about the Phoenicians, sailors and navigators of some renown. I just never knew where these Phoenicians lived.  Apparently, some of them lived and built a port right here at what is today called Caesarea Maritima.

In 90 BCE/BC (remember BC counts backwards from zero and AD counts forward), the city was captured by a Jewish leader, Alexander Jannaeus, and it became part of the Hasmonean Kingdom. In 63 BC, Jerusalem was conquered by Rome (Pompey the Great) and it became part of the Roman Empire along with Caesarea. In 47 BC, Herod the Great was appointed the provincial Governor of the area and in 30 BC, Caesarea was given to Herod. Yes, I’m skipping through the history like stones thrown across a pond. When a city is thousands of years old, there are just too many historical details to get into a single blog.

So, we are up to Herod the Great4 and his building projects, one of which was Caesarea Maritima which he named for the emperor, Augustus Caesar. The man knew which side his bread was buttered on…since the Jewish people didn’t like him one bit… more on that later. I do like that he named the new port city Caesarea and not Augustarea. Hey, if Augustus was deposed, then the name still worked, right? Caesars come and go; the city’s name stays the same. (Although the new harbor built by Herod was known as Sebastos Harbour, which is Greek for Augustus so he had it covered both ways.)

Entrance Area to Caesarea Maritima National Park

Herod turned Caesarea into a showplace. It had a theater, bath house, a hippodrome, a new fortified state-of-the-art port, etc., with a Roman aqueduct that brought fresh water all the way from the springs at Mount Carmel (about 43 kilometers away). The theater was known to sponsor sporting events, chariot races, gladiator games, theatrical productions and, unfortunately, in its later years after the Jewish revolts, too many public executions. 

Roman Aqueduct

But the amphitheater could seat 4,000, the Hippodrome 20,000; the breakwaters provided safe harbor for about 300 ships; and, one of my favorites bits of trivia, the city had a sewer system that was flushed out by the tide.  For all Herod’s faults (and many might say he was “pure evil”), he was quite the builder. And, speaking of faults…. Caesarea was built right on a fault line between tectonic plates….which explains further damages to the port city by earthquakes and tsunamis over the years.

Amphitheater at Caesarea Maritima

In 6 BC, Caesarea Maritima replaced Jerusalem as the governmental capital of the province. The official residences of the procurator, Antonius Felix, and the prefect, Pontius Pilate, were here. (Herod was off building his personal palaces elsewhere, I expect, but certainly had a home here too.) Pilate was the 5th Governor of the province serving from about 26 AD (or CE) to 37 AD. 

Hippodrome at Caesarea Maritima

I’m sure you recall Pontius Pilate from scripture. Here, at Caesarea, archaeologists uncovered the “Pilate stone”, the only artifact found anywhere that references Pilate making the connection with the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The inscription on the stone reads (per a historical marker in the national park at the site), “(Po)ntius Pilatus, the prefect of Judaea, (erected) a building (dedicated) to (the emperor) Tiberius”.

Replica of the “Pilate Stone”

Which brings us to why two busloads of Christian tourists are spending time at Caesarea Maritima. (I keep saying the whole name so as not to confuse things with Caesarea Philippi which is further north and east…which I will write about later in another blog.) 

Christian Tomb – Engraved Cross on the Lid

Quite a bit happened at this site that is important to Christians. I’m going to list just a few events from the New Testament with scriptural cites:

After the conversion of the Ethiopian eunuch and his baptism, Philip was carried to Azotus and traveled from there to Caesarea where he continued preaching the gospel. Acts 8:40.

Caesarea was the home of Deacon Philip and his four daughters who were prophetesses. Paul stayed/visited with Philip between missionary journeys. Acts 21:8

Peter traveled to Caesarea “by the sea” to meet with Cornelius the Centurion where Cornelius and his family became some of the first Gentiles converted to Christianity and baptized. Acts 10

Herod Agrippa I (successor to Herod the Great) was searching for Peter after he was released from prison by an angel but could not find him. Herod Agrippa I left Judah at that point and went to Caesarea. He made a speech at his palace where the people said he looked like a god. He was struck down for allowing the people to worship him as a god. Acts 12

After being attacked in Jerusalem, Paul was brought to Caesarea and then sent to his hometown of Tarsus for his safety. Acts 9:29-30

During one of Paul’s stays, the prophet Agabus from Judea, met with Paul, took Paul’s belt and bound his (Agabus’s) hands & feet with it, foretelling Paul’s imprisonment by the Jewish leaders in Jerusalem. Acts 21:11

While Paul was imprisoned at Jerusalem, a plot was revealed that 40 Jewish men were conspiring to kill him. The commander of the centurions had Paul removed from Jerusalem and taken to Caesarea.  Acts 23:23 When Paul was taken to Caesarea, he was handed over to Antonius Felix, the Governor. Acts 23:33

Paul was imprisoned at Caesarea for two years awaiting trial until he invoked his Roman citizenship and was shipped to Rome for trial. While at Caesarea, Paul preached to the provincial governor, Agrippa II, who said that if he listened to Paul anymore, he (Agrippa II) might just be converted himself. Acts 24, Acts 25, & Acts 26

Although Caesarea was a port city more associated with commerce than religion, it was a city where many religious things were going on.  We know that Herod the Great completed many building projects in Caesarea. According to scriptures, this is the same Herod who ordered the “Massacre of the Innocents” after the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem to prevent a newborn king from growing up to take his kingdom. Matthew 2:1-13  

Some 33 years later, the governor, Pontius Pilate, who ruled from Caesarea, traveled to Jerusalem for Passover where he presided over the trial of Jesus ensuring that he would be remembered by Christians all over the world forever….but certainly not in a good way. Luke 23:1-6  We all know how that story ends.

But that was Jerusalem….back to Caesarea. Not so many years later in 135 AD, the last of three Jewish revolts occurred here after the desecration of the Jewish synagogue which ended with the massacre of 20,000 Jews. (The first revolt had occurred in 70 AD and ended with the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple.)

Over the next couple centuries Caesarea became a center for Christianity. The library at Caesarea was said to have included more than thirty (30) thousand manuscripts of scriptures and writings but none of that seems to have survived the conquest by the Muslims in 640 AD. What a shame, I like to think that, just maybe, Paul’s original letters were stored there. How wonderful it would be if we had those documents preserved somewhere today…. not to mention the original manuscripts of the four gospels!

According to Church tradition, the Nicene Creed was written at Caesarea and several early church Bishops served there including Zacchaeus the Publican, followed by Cornelius the Centurion, and then, Theophilus.  Also, the Council of 195 AD which determined that Easter would be observed on a Sunday may have been held there.

So, what finally happened to Caesarea? Why is it a national park filled with archaeological ruins these days? Well, after that last Jewish revolt, the name was changed to Syria Palaestina. It continued to be inhabited through the 6th Century AD until it was destroyed in the Muslim conquest in 640 AD. By the 9th century, the harbor was said to be no longer used as a port for trading ships.  A couple earthquakes and maybe a tsunami may have contributed to the deteriorating condition of the port & harbor over the centuries. During the Byzantine era, the city came to be known as Palaestina Prima.

Not much happened until it was rebuilt by the Muslims in the 11th century. Then it was conquered by the Crusaders who used it as a strategic site because of its harbor. Finally, it was, according to Wikipedia, “slighted” by the Mamluks in 1265 AD. So, I’d never heard “slighted” used in this way, so I clicked again (Wikipedia is the source of endless connections & clicks). Being “slighted” by a conqueror meant that everything was destroyed very deliberately so that nothing remained that could be useful to enemies any longer. The Mamluk Sultanate ruled in the area until the early 16th century. Caesarea as a thriving city was pretty much gone at that point.

While there are only remains of this great city from two thousand plus years ago, there is still a thriving modern community just west of the national park. When we were there, I noticed people sunning on the beach and others fishing off the old breakwaters near the aqueduct much the same as people have been doing for thousands of years. Rulers, Sultans, Emperors, Kings rule & get deposed; cities come and go; then, new cities get built on top of the old ones.  The names & the buildings may change but the people go on and on… continuing down through the centuries.

I pray that they always will.

Scriptural Sources:

(See above in the narrative as indicated)

Resources:

(Other than the Biblical parts, my research comes predominantly from Wikipedia1 and See The Holy Land 2 websites. For Biblical references, I used the New American Standard Bible (NASB) at BibleHub.Com5.)

  1. Wikipedia Caesarea Maritima:  Caesarea Maritima – Wikipedia
  2. SeeTheHolyLand.Net: Caesarea Maritima « See The Holy Land
  3. For more on AD & BC: Anno Domini – Wikipedia
  4. For more on Herod the Great: Herod the Great – Wikipedia
  5. Scriptural References: BibleHub.Com

ICYMI – Previous blogs in the Israel 2022 series:

Pinch Yourself – April 4, 2022